伊恩·克罗克和埃迪·里斯的蝶泳技术-中英对照

LOWER BODY IN BUTTERFLY
蝶泳中下半身的动作

When I teach any stroke, in particularly butterfly, I use the part method. I would take in separate what we teach in butterfly, and in upper body and lower body. Most important thing in learning butterfly is the kick. It’s easy to learn, and it’s very important to learn little at younger age, so you can move them along.
我在传授任何泳姿时都会将身体分为各个部分来讲解,教蝶泳时更是这样。我将分别讲解蝶泳动作,包括上半身和下半身的动作。学习蝶泳中最重要的一项就是打腿。蝶泳腿很容易学,而且在年龄较小时就学一些也非常重要。

RELAXED FEET WHILE KICKING
打腿时脚部放松
Sometimes we focus too much on pressing the feet together real hard in the kick if you lock the knees together and the angle bones together. But if you watch all the great kickers, their feet a littler bit more relaxed, and a kind of (****) a little bit from being pressed totally closed together.
有时候我们在打腿时太注重于将脚使劲并在一起了,就像把膝盖和踝骨锁在一起似的。不过如果你看看那些打腿一流的选手,就会发现他们的脚是稍微松驰的,并不是完全紧密地并在一起,而是留出一些空隙来。

AMPLITUDE OF THE BUTTERFLY KICK
打腿的幅度
It is very important to look at butterfly underwater to see the distance that the toes travel. On rare occasions the toes can come out of the water, but generally you want the kick under the water.
非常有必要在水下观察蝶泳,看看脚尖移动的距离。在个别情况下脚尖可以露出水面,但是一般情况下还是要将打腿控制在水下完成。

HIPS DURING BUTTERFLY KICK
蝶泳打腿时臀部的位置
To get on to the surface, the main thing I look for is somebody’s bathing suit coming out of the water when the hands enter and when they exit the water. When the feet kick down, the bathing suit comes out of the water every time.
在水面上,我首先观察的是运动员的手在入水和出水时泳裤出水的情况。每次向下踢腿时,泳裤就应露出水面。

KNEE BEND DURING KICKING
打腿时膝盖的弯曲

In notice of the bend of the legs is about 60 degrees, 60 to 70 degrees. I have seen some good flyers that bend almost 90 degrees, and you would think that would stop their forward motion, but it doesn’t due to their position of their hips.
It is important to remember on butterfly kick that you rank of motion as much as you think your rank of motion is, it can usually be little bit more.
腿部弯曲应该在60度,或者60度到70度之间。我曾经见到一些出色的蝶泳选手几乎将膝盖弯曲到了90度,你可能会以为这么大的弯曲会减缓他们前进的速度,但是事实上却没有,因为他们采用了正确的臀部位置。
伊恩:“蝶泳腿中值得注意的是,在你感觉到自己正常的打腿幅度内,其实通常还可以幅度更大一点。”

LOWER BODY REVIEW
下半身动作要点总结

1. BE SURE TO RELAX THE FEET
2. VIEW THE DISTANCE THE TOES TRAVEL UNDERWATER
3. SUIT OUT OF THE WATER WHEN THE HANDS ENTER AND EXIT THE WATER
4. KNEE BEND IS AT LEAST 60 DEGREES
1.确保脚部放松
2.观察脚趾在水下移动的距离
3.当手入水和出水时泳裤露出水面
4.膝盖弯曲至少为60度

UPPER BODY IN BUTTERFLY 蝶泳中上半身的动作

What you to finish underwater kick, and you gonna be on the surface swimming butterfly, then the arms the greatest propulsive unit, and we need to work on that.
水下打腿之后,你的身体将浮出水面,此时手臂产生最大的推进力量。本节我们将就此进行探讨。

LITTLE SPLASH IN FRONT OF BODY
尽量减少身体前方产生的水花

Ian: “A good sign of having an efficient stroke is to have very little splash on the surface of the water. This can be very difficult in butterfly because you are moving your whole body down to the water during the recovery phase of the stroke, but it is still an important thing to focus on, to try to reduce the (**) splash that you have in front of your body. That is something I try to work on in practice, when I stroke I could feel starting the fall part, just trying to keep it efficient.”
伊恩:“高效率游泳的一个特点,就是在水面上只溅起很小的水花。在蝶泳中做到这一点很难,因为在移臂时你全身的重量都要往水下冲。但是这又非常重要,要尽量减少身体前方产生的水花。这是我在练习时注意的一个方面,当我开始降落时,我会尽量保持高效性。”

HANDS ENTER SHOULDER WIDTH APART
手入水时与肩同宽

The hands enter about shoulder width apart.
Ian: “Just as Eddie said, notice how the hands enter the water with shoulder width apart. As you doing a lot of high elbow training in butterfly this would help you shoulder over the long line.”
As they enter, head and shoulders go under water, you can see that Ian’s hands are nice and relaxed, they are not stiff. As soon as the hands hit, they started outward for the upper part of the hourglass.
手入水时大约与肩同宽。
伊恩:“正如艾迪所说,注意手入水时应当与肩同宽。在你做大量的蝶泳高肘练习时,这可以帮助你的肩部保持在身体的延长线上。”
头部和肩膀入水后,你可以看到伊恩的手部动作优雅而放松,一点也不僵硬。手一旦入水,就立刻开始向外划动,开始沙漏动作周期的前半部分。

HOURGLASS MOTION UNDERWATER
水下沙漏状划水动作

Once you are on the surface, the main unit for propulsion are your arms, so it is very important that your draw the right pattern underwater, and that is a hourglass pattern. If you were to stick your thumbs out as your hands come underneath your stomach, (**) almost touch. This helps set a relaxed recovery which for any distance butterfly, you want do working underwater and relaxing over the surface of the water.
Ian: “The reason for the hourglass is be constantly searching for still water so you can get the most out of your stroke, and also the second reason for is to help the recovery phase of the stroke initiated as your hands pass your hip there sort of sling shot passed your hips, and then enter the relax recovery.”
身体浮到水面后,最大的推进力量就来自手臂。因此正确的水下划水路线非常重要,也就是沙漏状划水。在你的双手划到腹部下方时,如果此时你伸出两个拇指,那么它们几乎可以碰到一起。这种方式可以帮助你在任何距离的蝶泳时实现轻松的移臂。你手上的劲应当使在水下,而在水面移臂时则应放松。
伊恩:“采用沙漏型划水是为了找到持续抓水的感觉,从而使划水获得最大的效果。另外这样对移臂也有帮助。移臂阶段从你的手划过臀部时开始,此时你的手就象从臀部两侧甩出去一样,然后就开始进行放松的移臂动作。”

UPPER BODY REVIEW
上半身动作要点总结

1. LITTLE SPLASH IN FRONT OF BODY
2. HANDS ENTER SHOULDER WIDTH APART
3. HOURGLASS MOTION UNDERWATER
1.尽量减少身体前方产生的水花
2.手入水时与肩同宽
3.水下沙漏状划水动作

HEAD POSTION
头部的位置

For all strokes the head position is the most important item, because it allows you to line up.
无论何种泳姿,头部的位置都是最重要的。正确的头部位置才能使你的身体保持直线。

HEAD ENTERS WATER BEFORE HANDS
头在手之前入水

The head gets in the water before the hands, but just slightly before the hands go in the water – too soon or too late can (drain off) the rhythm of the stroke.
头应当比手先入水,但是只需要提前一点点即可。入水的时机过早或过迟都会破坏划水的节奏。

HEAD IS LOOKING STRAIGHT DOWN
目光直视下方

By getting the head in the water, means to look straight down at the bottom. If you are a one up one down breather, or one up two down breather, depending on the distance of your race, your head position is really key.
头在水中时,要直视下方。如果你采用一划一呼吸,或者采用两划一呼吸的方式(根据比赛距离),那么头部的位置是非常关键的。

HEAD GOES DOWN, HIPS COME UP
头向下时,臀部向上

Ian: “Notice that when my head comes out of the water, my hips go down. And when my head goes back into the water, my hips come out – and my suit comes out of the water as Eddie was pointed out.”
伊恩:“注意当我的头出水时,PP就下沉。而当头入水时,PP就上翘。也就如同艾迪前面说的那样,泳裤露出水面。”

For Ian, we find out his greatest speed is with one up one down or one up two down. If he tries to go without breathing or breathing twice in a 50 meter butterfly, it is not as fast as if he breathes every other or every third.
Ian: “On your breathing stroke it is really important to get your breath and get your head back down inline with your body as quickly as possible. And on your non-breathing stroke, despite the undulation of the rest of your body, it is important trying to keep your head inline with your body line.”
Look at the head position – he is looking straight down through most of the pool, and before the hands enter, his head is already down. This gets you a great shot of when the head goes down.
对于伊恩来说,采用一划一呼吸或两划一呼吸时速度最快。如果他在50米蝶泳中采用憋气游或者只呼吸两次,那么还没有两次一呼吸或三次一呼吸的速度快。
伊恩:“在换气的划臂周期,呼吸后一定要尽快地将头部恢复到水中与身体保持直线的位置。在非换气的划臂周期,虽然身体的其他部位在波动,但是头部应当保持与身体成直线的位置。”
让我们看看伊恩游泳时头部的位置。在大多数时间里他都是直视池底的,而在手入水之前,他的头已经开始下沉。这非常好地说明了头入水的时机。

HEAD POSTION REVIEW
头部位置要点总结

1.HEAD ENTERS WATER BEFORE HANDS
2.HEAD IS LOOKING STRAIGHT DOWN
3.HEAD GOES DOWN, HIPS COME UP
1.头在手之前入水
2.目光直视下方
3.头向下时,臀部向上

UNDERWATER KICKING 水下海豚腿

Ian: “One of the most important aspects of having good underwater dolphin kick is having a tight streamline. I would consider tight streamline is one of the most effortless ways that you can increase you speed and efficiency and therefore get faster. Another key point to a good streamline is proper head position, keeping your head inline with rest of your body or allows your hips to have the greatest range of motion. And a good streamline proper head position means keeping your arms tuck right behind your ears.”
伊恩:“要做到完美的水下海豚腿,最重要的是保持紧密的流线型。我认为紧密的流线型是增加速度提高效率最省事的方法,这样才能游得更快。良好流线型的另一个要点是正确的头部位置。应当使头部与身体其他部分保持在一条直线上,或者使臀部能够最大幅度地摆动。良好的流线型、正确的头部位置,意味着将手臂紧贴在耳朵后面。”

When you streamline off the wall, or off start in your fly kicking, you can tell if you kicking too big if you can feel you feet kicking the water, and that may not be something that the younger swimmers can get, but the older swimmers definitely get that.
Notice the distance his feet travel, and there is a snap at the end that almost like (popping a towel) you get your greatest speed down there, and it starts to feed back up into the position so you get some pressure on the water on your up kick, so you are in position to start the next kick. And very simply, the faster you can kick the faster you would go.
This is very important for every age to work on the fly kick underwater. It is such a weapon to have for the fly to back to free and the IMs. It is just very, very important.
The only place the fly kick is not a plus for most swimmers is in the 50-yard freestyle. In the 100 freestyle, there are people to use 3 to 5 fly kicks and go faster 41 plus and go 48 plus to 49 low for a 100 meters.
There is different opinion on when to start the fly kick. Usually it is one body length off the wall or before you start losing speed through way too long you slow down. And it is so important to maintain your speed from the start or turn. You can maintain that speed and use your fly kick to extend another body length or two body length or three body length, then you have help yourself not only at that part of the race, but at the end of the race. Because the fly kick, even though you are holding your breath, creates less (lacky gas) and then on the surface then swiming and using all parts of the body.
当你采用流线型打腿蹬离池壁时,如果你能感到脚在踢水,那么可以断定打腿的幅度过大了。这一点年龄小的游泳者不一定能体会到,但是岁数大些的人一定可以感觉到。
注意伊恩脚的摆动幅度,在末端猛然甩动,就像甩一条毛巾一样,在末端获得最大的速度,而这又反馈到你所在的位置,这样你在向上踢腿时能够感到一些水的压力,而此时你也准备好进行下一次打腿。显然,你打腿的频率越快,前进的速度也就越快。
对于任何年龄组的人来说,进行水下海豚腿的练习都是非常重要的。无论是蝶泳、自由泳、还是个人混合泳,海豚腿都是一件利器 – 没啥说的,它就是那么、那么的重要。
对于大多数游泳者来说,海豚腿唯一没什么用的地方就是50码自由泳比赛。而在100码的自由泳中,有些人通过3到5下海豚腿获得更快的速度,可以游到42秒以内,而在100米比赛中则能游到49秒上下。
关于何时开始打腿有着不同的观点。通常在蹬离池壁一个身位后开始打腿,或者在你滑行过长距离以至于失去速度之前开始。而在比赛开始或转身时保持速度是非常重要的。你可以通过海豚腿将出发的速度额外保持1个、2个、甚至3个身位的距离。这样不仅在出发和转身阶段有所帮助,在比赛冲刺阶段也是如此。因为即使你屏住呼吸,蝶腿也产生较少的(???),使用全身部位游。

UNDERWATER KICKING REVIEW 水下海豚腿要点总结

1. TIGHT STREAMLINE
1.保持良好的流线型
2. KEEP HEAD IN LINE WITH THE REST OF THE BODY
2.头部与身体其余部分保持在一条直线上
3. NOTICE THE DISTANCE HIS FEET TRAVEL
3.注意打腿时脚的幅度

DRILL #1 5/2

One of my favorite and most consistent fly drills that we use is 5 kicks and 2 strokes. For younger swimmers we can even go 4 kicks and 2 strokes. This helps some work on the undulation, and still helps some work on the transition from the underwater phase to the surface. Then they work on it without whole lot of momentum, which will (lineup) making a little bit easier off the walls. There are two things to worries about here. One of them is to keep your feet underwater all the time, and the other one is to move them fast. And the way we set the tone for this, most of our repeats with this are done at 50 yards or 50 meters. You go 10 50 on one 15 or men like this, pretty soon you got a bunch of guys holden 24 to 26 when you doing 5 kicks and 2 strokes. If you think about how fast they are going with this drill, then you known how important the fly kick is.
我最喜欢的一个练习,也是我们一直使用的一个蝶泳练习就是5次打腿2次划臂(5/2)的练习。对于小游泳运动员我们还可以采用4次打腿和2次划臂进行练习。这对于改善身体的波动有所帮助,而且对水下到水面的转换也有一定的帮助。(*****)。这里有两处需要注意的地方:第一点是始终保持脚在水面以下,另一点是脚移动的速度要快。(*****),大多数练习都是按照50码或50米的距离进行的。(如果你在一个15练习10次50码的距离,很快就有一批家伙作5/2练习时达到24~26?)。如果你想一想他们能够在此项练习中达到多快的速度,那么你就知道海豚腿有多么重要了。

Ian: “I think the 5 kicks/2 strokes drill is a good opportunity to work on having a tight streamline and transitioning from underwater kick into the butterfly, also is a great opportunity to work on breathing pattern. On this drill you can notice that I don’t breathe on the first stroke out of the water but I breathe on the second stroke, which replicate my break out in any sort of race or practice situation you never want breath on the first stroke.”
伊恩:“我认为5腿/2划练习对于保持紧密的流线型,以及从水下海豚腿转换到完整的蝶泳都很有帮助,对呼吸方式也很有帮助。在进行此项练习时,你可以看到我在出水后的第一次划臂时没有唤气,而是在第二次划臂时才换气。这和我在任何比赛或练习时出水的方式都是一致的,从来不在第一次划臂时换气。”

要点:

KEEP YOUR FEET UNDERWATER ALL THE TIME
脚始终保持在水面以下

MOVE YOUR FEET FAST
脚的摆动速度要快

TIGHT STREAMLINE
保持紧密的流线型

CONCENTRATE ON BREATHING PATTERN
注意呼吸方式

DRILL #2
FLY KICK ON YOUR BACK
练习2
仰蝶打腿

One of the best things we do for fly kick is the fly kick on the back, and we do most of it with our hands at our sides. This helps the swimmers increase the strength of the quadriceps, the strength of their stomach, and those main muscle groups that drives fly kick.
蝶泳腿的一项最佳练习就是仰蝶打腿,做这一练习时我们一般把手放在两侧。该练习可以增加股四头肌的力量、腹部的力量、以及蝶泳腿所需的其他主要肌肉群的力量。

Ian: “One important thing to remember when you doing this fly kick on your back drill is to have the correct range of motion. And if your knees and your feet come out of the water, then your undulation motion is actually too large. You want you knees and your feet to just kind of come to the surface, and then go back down.”
伊恩:“做仰蝶打腿练习时最重要的是要保持正确的动作幅度。如果你的膝盖和脚露出了水面,那么你的摆动幅度就过头了。膝盖和脚应当向上刚好摆动到水面的位置,然后就应当向下摆。”

When we do this in practice we would do 5 to 8 kicks off the wall in a streamline position, pull our hands to the side, and then keep our head straight up, and kick as hard as we can down to the end of the pool. It becomes more than a drill, it becomes part of your training program, and it teaches you so much, it adds a lot of strength. After 4 to 6 weeks, there average times in repeat 100s of fly kick on your back, we drop 5 to 10 seconds.
我们在作此项练习时,通常用流线型姿势蹬离池壁打腿5到8下,然后手放在两侧,保持头部笔直,用最大的力气打腿到泳池的另一端。这已经不仅仅是一个练习,而是培训计划的一部分。它可以教会你很多东西,并且显著增加你的力量。在4到6周大量重复的仰蝶腿练习后,平均时间可以缩短5到10秒。

Ian: “One of the things that I think about while I am doing the dolphin kick on my back is trying to have proper head position. If my head is in the right position then I have good range of motion with my hips. I notice that when I look down towards my feet on this drill, my hips tend to sink, and in order to try keeping my hips from sinking, I’d try look straight up at the ceiling.”
伊恩:“我在进行仰蝶海豚腿的练习时总是尽量保持正确的头部位置。如果我的头部位置正确的话,那么臀部的动作幅度也错不了。我注意到当我做此练习时如果往脚下看,那么臀部就趋于下沉,而为了不使臀部下沉,我会试图向上直视天花板。”

DRILL #3
3-3-3
练习三
“3-3-3”练习

One of the main drills for working on the movement of the hips so that the bathing suit does comes out of the water is the very simple butterfly drills do 3 left arm strokes, 3 right arm strokes, focusing on getting the head down and getting the hips up, and then take 3 regular butterfly strokes, called 3-3-3, and that will really help you work on your kicks, and it slows them down enough that they can figure out what needs do be done on the kick. As long as the done get done until they figure out, no matter what we give them, what we know, what we say.
3-3-3练习非常简单,就是先左臂划水3次,右臂划水3次(单臂划水时注意头部向下时臀部向上),然后再作3次正常的蝶泳动作。这是臀部动作的一个主要练习,可以帮助你实现泳裤出水的效果。这一练习对改进打腿也非常有帮助,因为动作频率比较慢,所以你在练习时可以仔细思考打腿时的动作。无论教练员理论如何、教授什么、说些什么,最后还是要运动员自己去体会的。

Ian: “On the 3-3-3 drill, Eddie talks about the fact that slows down the stroke that you can focus on getting the little things right. And one of the little things I like to focus on is having the stroke timing correct on the 3-3-3 drill, which means making sure that you have one kick as the hand enters the water out from the beginning of the catch, and one kick as your hand exits the water at the beginning of the recovery.”
伊恩:“在3-3-3练习中,艾迪提到了划水的频率会放慢,这样你就可以集中思考如何在细微之处作出改进。我在做3-3-3练习时关注的一个细微之处是如何保证正确的划水时机,这意味着手入水开始抱水之前打一次腿,而手出水刚要开始移臂时再打一次腿。”

When he is doing this one arm, exits bathing suit actually gets out of the water more than when he is swimming, so it is a good over emphasis to have.
A very important thing about any drill for any stroke is that they must be done correctly. So just because a coach gives the swimmer drills to do, you may not be helping their stroke if drills is done incorrectly. So while they are drilling, you must correct so that they get the drill right.
当伊恩做单臂蝶的练习时,泳裤露出水面的幅度比正常蝶泳时要大,这一突出强调的效果很好。
无论是何种泳姿中的任何练习,最重要的是必须用正确的方法去练。如果教练只是给出一些练习让游泳者去训练,但是训练的方法却是错误的,那么对提高可能就没什么帮助。因此在运动员练习时,你必须对错误之处进行纠正,以保证练习的正确。

结语

Thanks for watching the DVD. I know this DVD will help you – and the whole point of it is to get you to go faster, and that’s a lot of fun.
谢谢观赏本片。我相信本片将会对你有所帮助,所有这些都是为了使你游得更快,而这也是充满乐趣的!

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游泳爱好者,常年混迹于各大游泳网站论坛中,学习了不少游泳知识和技巧,发文或者转文旨在分享游泳学习中的经验与方法,与大家共同进步。单项突破,循序渐进,你也可以游出世界冠军的风采。PS:本站视频可以直接长按下载到本地离线观看。