Caeleb Dressel德雷塞尔的出发是世界上最好的出发

Caeleb Dressel的出发已经成为一个传奇。以下是您可以从这个星球上最快的游泳运动员身上学到的一些东西。如果您在布达佩斯观看了国际泳联世界锦标赛,您将目睹游泳历史上最具统治力的表演之一。美国人Caeleb Dressel成为50米和100米的自由泳和100米蝶泳世界上最快的游泳运动员。他还在所有这三项赛事中创造了惊人的纪录,在100米蝶泳中游进了50秒,并且在50米和100米自由泳中几乎游进了21秒和47秒。虽然Dressel的稳定性非常出色 – 但他在每场比赛中从预赛到半决赛再到决赛都有所提升,其中一个技术环节 – 他的出发是最受关注的。在每场比赛中,无论是接力还是50米自由泳,他的爆炸性出发早早地帮他确定了领先优势,这个优势通常长达半个身位。以下是您可以从Caeleb Dressel这个星球上最快的前15米选手那里学到的一些东西,:

1.出发台上他的髋部处于高位

当他蹲下来,预备时,Dressel的髋部很高。“这可以拉长腿筋,让腿准备发射,”Dlessel在Bolles的教练之一,现在是Texas A&M的助理教练Jason Calanog说。(当时,Bolles组内还包括100米蝶泳奥运冠军Joseph Schooling,100-200米仰泳奥运冠军Ryan Murphy,以及Santo Condorelli,他在里约奥运100米自由泳中排名第四。那是一个禽兽般的小组。)Calanog发现他的游泳运动员能够通过这种臀部位置获得更快的反应时间。高臀位的优势意味着腿筋拉紧并准备就绪。如果你的臀部低,肌肉最终不得不反应而不是开火。

2.巨大的爆发力

游泳运动员传统上并不是一位出色的运动员。我们花了很多时间在水中,很难达到令人目眩的运动水平。游泳运动员在陆地上不协调是一个流传已久的笑话,游泳运动员受伤的大多数都是陆地和力量训练的结果也就不足为奇了。但出发本质上是陆地运动。这不是你可以在水中训练的东西,需要在举重室中开发出快速有力的起动所需的爆发力。毫无疑问,Dressel是那里的运动员。他能举起260磅的杠铃。这种爆发力可以帮助他像导弹一样从出发台上飞出来吗?当然。

3.他出发时将重心放在后方

很多人谈论出发的反应时间,这通常是在谈论游泳运动员是否有良好的出发时所使用的指标。但反应时间不能说明全部问题,尽管它很容易被测量。因为它并没有考虑到运动员离开时的力量和加速度。在布达佩斯举行的国际泳联世界锦标赛上,德雷塞尔出发时的表现对所有人进行了抨击。半个身位长度的领先使比赛受到重创。然而,他的反应时间并不能反映他在50米自由泳中前15米的超凡脱俗领先,例如,他在决赛选手的反应时间(0.62)仅仅排名第三。让他的反应时间给人留下深刻印象的是Dressel出发时将他的臀部重心放在后方。不像其他顶级游泳运动员如弗洛伦特·马诺杜(Frednt Manaudou),他们的臀部位于前脚上方,Dressel的臀部更靠后,一个改良的弹弓出发。Dressel如果把重心放在前方,他的反应时间会稍微快些吗?也许。但是,他在反应时间中获得的百分之一秒,会使得他在力量和加速方面的优势丧失。出发并不是被反应最快的人统治,而是被最快到达15米线的人。

4.手臂的使用

游泳运动员在出发犯的一个常见错误就是不使用他们的手臂来产生推进力。我们看到手臂的作用变得更加突出,但在大多数情况下,游泳运动员仅在抓住跳台时使用他们的手臂等待开始,并确保他们处于流线型。Dressel的出发最引人注目的一个方面是他将手臂放在他的上方和周围,创造了一种耦合动作,有助于在他产生更多的距离和动量进入流线型。
而且因为他将臀部重心放在后方,所以他也更依赖他的手臂将他拉过来以获得加速。“他一开始就用手臂拉回整个身体,”卡拉诺格说。“大多数游泳运动员不会使用他们的手臂。”正如Dressel最近在Splash杂志的一次采访中所说,他确保他的“手臂能像腿一样做得多”。

5.后脚抬高

当Dressel离开跳台时,他的双腿不在一起。任何时候你使用跳台出发这是不可避免的,但它也有一个目的。抬高后脚有助于在入水时形成更锐利的进入角度。做这项工作的关键是你可能已经听过你的教练告诉你一百次的事情 – 确保你的整个身体在入水时击中靶心。目的是使用相同的小孔进入水中,从指尖到脚趾,以获得干净的入水。后脚抬高可以“在水中创造一个更陡峭的角度,”卡拉诺格说道,这可以帮助你击中你的靶心。

6.Dressel海豚腿踢得像海豚一样好

Dressel通过他的海豚腿和紧凑的流线在出水时保持了极好的速度。提到他的出发就不能不提到他的水下,他的水下动作是世界顶级的。 他如此强大的原因之一是他的上踢力量非常强。大多数游泳运动员可以用很大的力量下踢,但是上踢只作为另一个向下踢的重置阶段,而不是使用上踢获得更多的推进力。他以这种方式打腿并不是偶然的。“他多年来一直致力于这项工作,慢慢完善它,”卡拉诺格说。卓越的出发的另一个原因是什么?他在第一次划水时打海豚腿,这让他以最快的速度冲进了关键的第一次划水周期。

7.不断地练习

对于大多数游泳运动员来说,只有当大型比赛临近时,他们的开始才开始练习出发。那么他们做了什么?他们在比赛前拼命练习,并没有培养一个良好出发所需要的基础技能。对于Dressel和他在Bolles(现在在佛罗里达州)的教练来说,他们每天都在为此训练。

7 Reasons Caeleb Dressel’s Start is the Best in the World
Caeleb Dressel’s start has become a thing of legend. Here are some things you can learn from the fastest swimmer on the planet.

If you watched the FINA World Championships in Budapest, you were witness to one of the most dominating performances in swimming history.

American Caeleb Dressel decimated the fastest swimmers in the world in the 50 and 100m freestyles and the 100m butterfly. He also rattled the supersuit records in all three of those events, dipping under the 50 second mark in the 100m butterfly, and nearly breaking :21 and :47 in the freestyle sprints.
While Dressel’s consistency was remarkable—he improved with every swim from prelims to semis to finals in every event but one—his start was the thing that got the most attention.

During every race, from the relays, which he usually led off for the Americans, to the 50m freestyle, the fastest event on the program, he exploded to an early lead, often up to a half-body length.

Here are some things you can learn from Caeleb Dressel, the man with the fastest first 15m on the planet:

1. His hips are in a high position on the blocks.
When he is crouched, taking his marks, Dressel’s hips are nice and high.

“This elongates the hamstring and gets the leg ready to fire,” says Jason Calanog, one of Dressel’s coaches at Bolles, and now an assistant coach at Texas A&M. (At that time, the Bolles program also included 100m butterfly Olympic champion Joseph Schooling, 100-200m backstroke Olympic champion Ryan Murphy, and Santo Condorelli, who placed 4th in the 100m freestyle in Rio. That’s a nasty squad.)

Calanog has found that his swimmers are able to get a faster reaction time out of this kind of hip placement. The advantage of a high hip position means that the hamstring is taut and ready to go. If you have your hip low, the muscle ends up having to react and than fire.

2. Huge amount of explosiveness.
Swimmers aren’t traditionally known for being amazing athletes.

We spend so much time in the water that it is hard to achieve blinding levels of athleticism. It’s a running joke that swimmers are uncoordinated on land, and it’s probably no surprise that most of the injuries that swimmers incur are as a result of dryland and strength training.

But the start is inherently a dryland activity. It’s not something you can train in the water; the explosiveness necessary for a fast and powerful start is developed in the weight room.

And make no mistake, Dressel is an athlete there, too.

Here is a video of him cleaning over 260 pounds (from blocks, sure, but still impressive):
Think that kind of explosive power helps him fly off the blocks like a missile? Absolutely.

3. He back loads his start.
A lot is made of reaction time off the blocks, and that is generally the metric used when talking about whether or not a swimmer has a good start.

Reaction time doesn’t tell nearly the whole story, even though it’s an easy measurable to lob around. But it doesn’t account for force and acceleration of the athlete when leaving the blocks.

At the FINA World Championships in Budapest, Dressel pummeled everyone on the starts. Half-a-body length pummeled the competition. And yet, his reaction time wasn’t anything that would represent his otherworldly lead at 15m—in the 50m freestyle, for instance, he was third for reaction time (0.62) of the finalists.

What makes his reaction time impressive is that Dressel back-loads his hips on the blocks. Unlike other elite swimmers like Florent Manaudou, who center their hips above their front foot, Dressel’s hips are further back, in a modified slingshot start.

Would Dressel have a slightly faster reaction time if he front-loaded his weight? Maybe. But those one-hundredths of a second he would gain in reaction time he would be forfeiting in terms of power and acceleration.

The start isn’t dominated by who is off the blocks the fastest; it’s who gets to the 15m mark first.

4. Uses his arms.
A common mistake swimmers make on the start is not using their arms to generate propulsion.

We are seeing the arm movement becoming more prominent as younger swimmers are starting with it earlier, but for the most part, swimmers use their arms only in terms of gripping the blocks when awaiting the start and making sure they are in a streamline.
One of the most visibly noticeable aspects of Dressel’s start is that he brings his arms above and around him, creating a coupling motion that helps to generate more distance and momentum into his streamline.

And because he is back-loading his hips on the block, he is also more reliant on his arms to pull him through to gain acceleration off the block. “He pulls back on the block with his arms to use his entire body in the start,” says Calanog. “Most swimmers don’t use their arms.”

As Dressel recently said in an interview in Splash magazine, he makes sure that his “arms do as much work as my legs.”

5. Back foot on an angle off the blocks.
When Dressel leaves the blocks, his legs are not together. Anytime you use a track start this is inevitable, but it also has a purpose. Raising the back foot helps to create a sharper angle of entry when diving into the water.

The key to making this work is something you have probably heard your coach tell you a hundred times—make sure your entire body uses a tight bulls-eye when hitting the water. Aim to dive into the water using the same small hole, from finger tips to toes to get a clean entry.

Having that back foot up “creates a more steep angle into the water,” says Calanog, which helps you hit your bulls-eye.

6. Dressel dolphin kicks like a, well, dolphin.
Dressel maintains excellent speed through the breakout with his dolphin kicks and a tight streamline. You can’t really talk about Dressel’s start without talking about his underwaters, which are among the best in the world.

One of the reasons that it is so strong is that his up-kick is very strong. Most swimmers can kick towards the bottom of the pool with a nice amount of power, but use the up-kick only as a resetting phase for another down-kick, instead of using the up-kick for more propulsion.

It’s no accident that he kicks this way.

“He’s been working on it for years, with slow, perfect kicks in practice,” says Calanog.
7. Practice, practice, practice.
For most swimmers, their starts only get attention when the big meet suddenly looms on the horizon.

And so what do they do? They cram in a few sessions’ worth of starts, and never really get the reps in that they need to develop the skill that is inherent in a great start.

For Dressel, and his coaches at Bolles (and now at Florida), this means working on them every day, over years.

H/T: Thank you to Jason Calanog for taking the time to send over his notes and thoughts on his time working with Caeleb at Bolles.

翻译来自全浸游泳大熊

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