Breathing – Exhalation Technique(自由泳呼吸-呼气的技巧)

译者:fairq

Very few novice swimmers exhale properly into the water.(初学游泳者很少能正确地水中呼气)

Nearly all intermediate swimmers think they are exhaling correctly – at least, that’s what they say when we ask them. Do they? Very few do.
(几乎所有的中级水平泳者都认为他们作的是正确的呼气-当我们问他们的时候,至少他们是这样说的。他们果真作到了吗?答案是:非常少!)

Even amongst advanced swimmers, quite a few like to hold onto their breath under the water.

(甚至在一些高级游泳选手中,也有不少喜欢在水下憋气游。)

Why is this an important swimming technique? Getting your exhalation right will make freestyle feel much easier, get you balanced in the water and as a bonus, make you more relaxed whilst swimming. This will benefit any swimmer, from beginner to elite.

In this article we’re going to give you some very simple exercises to perform to improve your breathing technique and this will help you become a much better swimmer.
(呼吸为什么是一个重要的游泳技巧呢?让你的呼气正确将会使自由泳感觉更容易,使你在水中有很好的平衡,作为奖赏,它将使你游泳时更放松。它将使任何水平的泳者受益,从初级到顶级选手)

How You Should Breathe(你应该怎样进行呼吸)
we know the secret of freestyle breathing. The secret is good exhalation.
(我们知道自由泳呼吸的秘诀,这个秘诀就是良好的呼气)

When you are swimming you should always be exhaling except when you turn your head to inhale.
(当你游泳时,除了转头吸气以外,你应该一直是在呼气)

You can exhale through your mouth or through your nose or through both, it doesn’t matter. But when your face is in the water you should be exhaling all the time in one constant stream of bubbles.
(你可以通过嘴或鼻孔或两者同时进行呼气,这并不要紧。但当你的面部进入水中,你的所有时间都应该是在一个呼出的气泡流中进行呼气)

Do you do this? You’re probably thinking ‘yes I do’. We ask hundreds of swimmers this question every year, nearly all of them answer ‘yes’ but when they jump in the pool and we watch their breathing technique, very few actually do!

(你是这样作的吗?你可能认为,“是的,我就是这样作的”。这个问题我们每年都会问数百位泳者,几乎所有人都回答“是”,但一旦他们跳入池中,我们观察他们的呼吸技巧发现,其实很少有作到正确的!)

How Do Most Swimmers Exhale?(多数泳者如何吸气?)

After inhaling and returning their face to the water, most people hold that breath for at least one stroke, if not two. Shortly before their next inhalation they exhale very late into the water, often finishing that exhalation into the air when they’ve turned to breathe in.

(吸完气并将面部转回到水中后,大多数人如果不是持续两次划臂的话,至少有一次划水是保持这样呼吸的,他们只是在下一个吸气动作即将到来之前才迟迟地把气吐入水中,经常是在他们已经转换成吸气时才在空气中完成吐气动作)

They feel they are exhaling into the water because they do a little before inhalation, but that is too little too late.

(他们感觉他们正在向水中呼气是因为他们在吸气前作了一点点呼气动作,但太少太迟了。

Coaches: From the pool deck, watch for a little outward spray of water from the mouth area as the swimmer turns to take their breath – this is a classic sign of late exhalation. Such a swimmer will immediately feel more relaxed from an improved exhalation technique.

(教练:当一个游泳者转身进行呼吸时从泳池面向外看一点儿从嘴中吐出水花–这是一个典型的呼气过晚的标志。象这样的游泳者将会很快从提高呼气技巧中获得更放松的感觉。)

Why is it Important to Exhale Constantly?(不间断的呼气为什么这样重要?)

1) The most important reason is that when you hold your breath you tense up. When you breathe out you release that tension. Imagine you’re having a stressful day and someone tells you to take a deep breath – it’s not when you take the breath in that you feel better, it’s when you let it go. Holding your breath tenses you up and that is bad for your swimming technique.

(1.最重要的原因是当你屏气时,你会感觉紧张,而当你呼吸开来后你会释放这种紧张感。想象你正经历一个紧张日子,这时有人告诉你作一下深呼吸–你感觉好点的时候并不是你吸气的时候,而是当你吐气的时候。屏住呼吸让自己紧张,这对你的游泳技术是一件坏事。)

2) When you are holding your breath you can feel that you need to breathe. The sensation you are feeling is not the lack of oxygen, it’s the build up of CO2. By holding your breath you are keeping the CO2 in your blood stream and lungs – this makes you feel desperate for air. (2.当你屏住呼吸时你可能觉得你需要呼呼,你正感受到的感觉并不是缺氧,而是因为积聚的二氧化碳,通过屏住呼吸,你正持续把二氧化碳积累在你的血管和肺里面–这使你感觉绝望的气体。)

Breathing out constantly while you swim feels much nicer – you get rid of the CO2 and no longer feel so desperate for air.

(2.游泳时不断地往外吐气,你会感觉更棒-你除掉了二氧化碳,同时不再对空气感觉如此绝望)

3) Having lungs full of air is bad for your body position – your chest is too buoyant. Since your body acts like a see saw around your centre, this causes your legs to sink in the water, creating extra drag.(3.拥有一个充满气体的肺对你身体位置来说是不利的–你的胸部浮力太大。既然你的身体就象看围绕你的中心看到的行为一样,那么它会使你的你腿在水中下沉,产生额外的拖曳阻力。)

4) Most swimmers try to exhale just before they turn their head to breathe – or even worse, try and exhale and inhale in the short window when their mouth is above the waterline! This is a really hard thing to do, each breath feels snatched and panicky. If you breathe late like this, the tendency is to lift your head to breathe to give yourself a bit more time. Lifting your head is bad swimming technique, it causes your legs to sink – adding lots of drag.

(4.大多数游泳者都试图仅仅在他们转头进行呼吸的时候呼气-或者更糟,即在他们的嘴已经露出水面的时候,这样一个很短的时间窗口里,努力进行呼气和吸气)

Conclusion: exhaling constantly and continuously is a fundamental of a good freestyle stroke technique.

(结论:不间断地、连续地呼气是良好自由泳技术的基础)

How Will This Make Me Swim Faster?(这将如何让我游泳更快?)
Tension is bad for your swimming. We want to develop a smooth, relaxed, rhythmical stroke and tension stops us doing that. Tension makes us want to lift our head and that ruins our body position. Tension makes it hard to trust and feel the water. Perhaps worst of all, tension stops us enjoying our swimming.

(紧张对于游泳来说是不利的,我们希望开发一种平滑的,放松的,有节奏感的爬泳,但紧张感会阻止我们那样作。紧张让我们想抬高我们的头部,但这样会破坏我们的身体位置。紧张会使你很难对水有信任和感觉,可能最糟的是,紧张会阻止我们享受游泳。)

Holding your breath keeps excess CO2 in your lungs and blood stream. This hurts you aerobically as CO2 builds up in your system (like a sprint activity). For the same swimming speed and effort, holding your breath will make things much harder. Next time you’re running or doing something aerobic in the gym try holding your breath for 3 seconds and then suddenly inhale and exhale before holding it again – how much harder does this make it? Much harder!

(屏住呼吸使过量的二氧化碳进入你的肺和血管里,当二氧化碳积聚在你的系统里(如短跑运动)这会伤害你的有氧要求。同样速度和工夫的游泳,屏住呼吸游会变得更困难。下次当你进行跑步或者在体育馆做其他有氧运动时,屏住呼吸3秒钟,然后在再作下一次憋气前,突然吸气和呼气–这样作会让你变得多么难受?非常难受!

Without exhaling properly you’re going to find bilateral breathing (breathing to both sides) very hard. The build up of CO2 in your system from holding your breath makes the gap between 3 strokes feel very long. In this situation most swimmers revert to breathing to one side – their favoured side. As you can read here, the problem with single sided breathing is that your stroke tends to become lopsided and uneven. Your body roll tends to become poor on your non-breathing side and that leads to problems with the recovering arm swinging low over the water. Other problems with your technique start to appear such as scissor kicks and hands crossing the centre line. All of this because you’re not exhaling!

(没有正确的呼气技巧你将会发现双侧换气非常困难,因憋气而积聚在体内的二氧化碳让你感觉三划一换变得非常漫长。这种情况下大多数游泳者会回到单侧换气–他们比较舒服的一侧。正如你在这儿读到的,单侧换气的问题是你划程中将趋于变得不平衡和不均衡。在你不呼吸的一侧,你的身体滚动变弱,同时会造成让你的回臂摆动在较低的水面位置这样的问题。另外你那些刚开始出现问题如剪刀腿和手过中线,所有这些都是因为你没有呼气。)

The key to a creating a balanced symmetrical swimming technique is breathing to both sides – and the key to that is constant exhalation whenever your face is in the water.(建立一个平衡而对称的游泳技术的关键是双侧呼吸-而双侧换气的核心是每当你的面部进入水中就不断地呼气)

OK, So How Do I Make The change?(好,那么我要怎样作才使之改变?)

The trick is to get used to exhaling into the water and feel relaxed doing it. This sounds easy but you need to break the existing habit, which can take some persistence. We recommend the series of sinking exercises below to develop a new breathing technique and get you feeling more relaxed in the water.

(这一招就是习惯于把气吐入水中,并感觉很放松进行。这听起来容易,但你需要打破你既有的习惯,这种习惯可能比较持久。我们建议进行下面一系列的下沉练习,以发展一种新的呼吸技术,使你在水中感觉更放松。)

Learn to Sink!(学会下沉)– At the deep end of the pool tread water. When you are ready take a breath in and let yourself sink. As soon as your head is in the water start exhaling strongly through either your nose or mouth, whichever you prefer. Make sure you are exhaling straight away. If you are not exhaling immediately, or you are not exhaling strongly enough, you won’t sink – or you will sink a bit but then surface again.

(在游泳池的深水区踩水.当你准备好了吸一口气然后下沉,一旦你的头进入水中就开始通过鼻孔或者嘴用劲呼气。不管你喜欢哪种,请确保你呼气马上呼出。如果你不立即呼气,或者你呼气用劲不够,你将不会下沉-或者你将下沉一点儿,但接着又浮上了水面。)

– Practise sinking like this many times through. Make sure you are exhaling smoothly and constantly. The idea is to be able to sink straight down to the bottom of the pool and stay there exhaling until you are ready to push off the bottom and come back up.

(通过多次这样的下沉实践,确保您的呼气顺利和不间断。我们的主意是争取能垂直下沉到池底并停留在那儿呼气,直到你准备蹬离池底并返回到水面。)

– If you sink at first but then surface again, stay there and keep exhaling until you sink. Find your ‘sinking threshold’ and keep practising exhaling strongly until you can get down easily and quickly.

(如果你一开始下沉但接着又浮上来,那么停在那里并保持呼气直到你下沉。找到你的“沉没门槛”并持续实践强力呼气,直到你很容易和快速地沉下去)

– To help you to relax whilst sinking, imagine you are falling into bed or into a comfy chair at the end of a long hard day. Every muscle in your body relaxes and goes loose. You relax and sink.

(为了帮助你在下沉练习时放松,想象你是在劳累了一天后正在倒向家里的床上或者一张舒服的沙发中。你身体的每一块肌肉都放松并得到变得松驰。整个人放松并下沉。

– Are you surprised how strongly you have to exhale to sink? This shows you are not exhaling strongly enough in your normal stroke technique.(你非常惊讶为了下沉不得不呼气?这说明你在你的平常的爬泳技术中没有非常充分的呼气)

– Are you surprised how relaxed you become doing this? Perhaps you didn’t realise you were tense before? The sensation of sinking is something we naturally fear – it’s something that’s keeping you tense whilst you swim. Getting accustomed to the water and feeling happy sinking in this alien environment will help your swimming technique a great deal.

(你很惊讶你作这个时变得如此放松?或许你没有意识到是你以前太紧张?下沉的感觉某种程度让我们自然地觉得害怕–一定程度上在你游泳时保持紧张。这种不同的环境中下沉,习惯于水并对之感觉愉悦,将会有极大地帮助你的游泳技术。)

If you’re doing really well, try sitting on the bottom of the pool and watch your bubbles rising to the surface. Or even harder, lie on your back on the bottom and watch the bubbles.

(如果你真的做得很好,试着坐在池底并观察你吐出的气泡泡慢慢升到水面。或者更难的,仰躺在池底观察气泡)

Novice swimmers: The sink-down exercise is very important for you too. If you are a little nervous in the water, start in the shallow end and simply crouch to get your head under the water. Get used to this before you gradually get into deeper water.

(初学游泳的人:下沉练习对你同样重要。如果在水中有点儿慌张,那就从浅水区开始,只是简单地蹲着以使你的头部进入水面以下。习惯了这些后再到深一点的水中。)

Introducing Constant Exhalation To Your Swim Stroke(介绍一些不间断的呼气)

We recommend that you do a few of these ‘sink downs’ at the start of every swimming session to tune in to the watery environment and release any tension. It really is enjoyable and beneficial to any level of swimmer, even those macho males who might think it’s mumbo jumbo! Try it, we’re sure you’ll enjoy it.

(我们建议你在每次游泳开始时作一小部分“下沉”练习,以调整到水环境并释放所有的紧张感。对于任何水平的选手来说,它真的是非常享受和有益的,甚至那些大男子主义的男性,都将视它为珍宝。尝试一下,我们确信你会很享受它。)

Once you have performed your sink-downs, try some easy laps of swimming. Swim at a slow pace and imagine you have all day to get to the other end. Your sole focus should be to make sure you are exhaling strongly whenever your head is in the water.

(一旦你做完下沉练习,再尝试一些容易的游泳技巧,慢速游并想象你有一整天才能游到另一端。你唯一关注的焦点是,一旦你的头没入水中,你就要进行强力的呼气。)

If you don’t normally breathe bilaterally we recommend you make the switch straight away and breathe every 3 strokes. How do you feel? Are you more relaxed and less tense than normal? Can you now manage bilateral breathing?

(如果你平常不是两侧换气,我们建议你采用3划一吸的换气周期。你感觉如何?比平时更放松、紧张感更轻?你能作好双侧换气?

Drills and Exhalation Technique(练习和呼气技巧)

You guessed it, whenever you are doing drills you should be exhaling constantly into the water too! It’s good practise and helps you relax so you can perform the drill better.

(猜想一下,一旦你进行练习,你也应当进行不间断地强力把气吐入水中!这是一个很好的实践,它有助于你放松,以便你能把练习做得更好。)

Do you have a drill you struggle with? Exhaling strongly into the water might just be the key to cracking it!

(你在作一个水搏斗的练习?水中强力呼气将是击败它的关键。)

Summary(总结)

Most swimmers realise that breathing technique is a fundamental of the freestyle stroke. But most think about their inhalation only and forget about their exhalation. Don’t make that mistake yourself! Practise your sink downs and get focused on your exhalation. You’ll enjoy your swimming more and your stroke will benefit greatly.

(大多数游泳者认识到呼吸技术是自由泳的基本功。但许多人只关注他们的吸气而忘记他们的呼气。不要再自己误解自己了!进行你的下沉练习并把重点放在你的呼气上,你将更享受你的游泳,你的划水也将大大受益。

自由泳中的换气技术
爬泳中你应该怎样进行换气?这儿是我们的一些小帖子和应该避免的陷阱。

对初学者和中级水平选手来说,开发一种良好的换气技术可能是一个非常大的挑战。换气的问题容易影响到划水的其他方面。比如,换气可能造成剪刀腿,不好的身体位置,过度交叉以及畸形的划水。
许多泳者都有一个与换气相关的划水问题,他们没有认识到换气是产生问题的原因。
下面,我们快速地看扫视一下良好的换气技术和共同的问题。我们还将给你7个小帖子,以提高你的换气技巧,不断地尝试这些,以致你不认为你有换气方面的问题–你将非常惊讶!

Tip 1. Focus on Your Exhalation Not Your Inhalation
(提示1.重点在你的呼气,而不是你的吸气)
游泳的人最常见的问题是不在水下进行呼气.如果你呼吸之间进行水下呼气,那么当你快要换气时就只是不得不进行的吸气动作.这会让事情变得更容易.而且这也会让你放松并对你的双侧换气大有帮助.
它是如此重要并且能让你的游泳大不同.
我们热衷于此,找出我们在呼气上的关键文章:你知道你的问题,把他们全部列进去.

Tip 2. When you’re not breathing, keep your head still(不换气时保持头部稳定)

在呼吸之间,保持你的头部不动.不要让它象你的身体一样滚动-滚动将会让你头晕并且真正地破坏你的身体协调性.
如果你曾想过转动头部,那么就集中注意力看池底某一点.只有在进行换气时才转动你的头.这会让你一开始感觉有点陌生,但很快就会开始感觉良好.你将会发现在接下来的划程也感觉更协调了.
如果你正与保持协调头部稳定作斗争–尝试一下这个小视频(注:SWF格式无法上传)想象一下一个装有半满香槟的玻璃杯正放在你的头顶,而你一定要保持头部非常稳定,否则它将会洒出来.有时象这样想想就能作到这一招.
你也可以在浅水区或岸上向前弯腰进行模拟划臂练习,同时保持头部不动.

Tip 3. Breathe Into The pocket – Your Bow Wave Is Your friend(呼吸进口袋-你的涡流是你的朋友)
当你随着你的头部和身体在水中移动的时候,你会随着产生一股”涡流”,类似小船产生的一样.涡流的形状表示水位沿着游泳者的面部两侧下降.
这将在你的身体和头部两侧制造一个凹槽,它位于游池水面的下方-因此在你比你期望更低的位置有空气存在.
在这个凹槽里呼吸,而你却无需抬头进行吸气.
有时游泳的人把它称为”呼吸进口袋”,因为它看起来就象在你头边有一个空气袋.
为了产生涡流,你无需快游,甚至慢慢游泳也能制造一个适合你作呼吸进去的口袋.
许多游泳的人并没有意识到这个涡流的存在.他们或者挣扎或者抬头或者过度转动他们的头部去进行换气.那是一个很大的误会,正如我们在帖子4中解释的一样.

Tip 4. don’t lift Your head(不要抬头)

抬头呼吸的问题是正如所见一样的身体行为和你的腿在下沉.这会增加额外的拖曳阻力.
借助凹槽和头边的空气袋,你无需抬头进行换气.为了呼吸进水槽你仅仅需要转一点儿你的头而无需把它抬起来.如果你试着抬头,你将会扰动形成的涡流.减少这个水槽.而且,当你抬头时你将偏向换气太远–试着在涡流前上方换气.
因此,抬头会扰动涡流-这是一个恶性循.代替它的是,相信口袋的存在并保持较低的头部位置.
如果你正挣扎着去发现空气袋,一个很好的练习是,带上脚蹼以超人的位置练习游泳–一个手臂在你前端伸出,同时另外一个手臂停留在你的臀部位置.你的引导臂侧轻轻打水,同时往下看池底.当你要换气时,简单地微微转动你的头,去找到气袋并换气.不要急,用脚蹼打水将使你向前,这样你的嘴就能感觉到口袋的存在.

Tip 5. Don’t Over Rotate Your Head(不要过度转头)

一个跟抬头相似的问题是转头过多-这会让你在换气时是向上看,而不是向侧面看.
这是很不好的技术,因为它会过度转向你的呼吸侧,同时失去平衡。为了支撑你自己你倾向于让你的引导臂交叉过头(过中线),使你的身体形成一个香蕉形状。这会造成你的象蛇一样从一侧扭向另一侧。剪刀腿也非常类似。

为了纠正这个,你需要习惯在凹槽中呼吸。采用我们在小贴士4中的建议进行侧身打水练习,同时当你尝试换气时,保持你位置较低的那块泳镜在水里,这样你就会一只眼睛在水面以下,一个眼睛在水面之上。
如果你正努力去做这个,即在一侧池壁边游游泳,有人在你旁边的泳池边行走,要求他们保持的脚部位置与你肩部行进位置相当,当你在游泳并转头换气时,看到的位置应该他们脚部区域。
如果你游泳时致使脖子僵硬,这很可能是你要么换气时抬头或者是过度转头,这会给了你的颈部肌肉巨大的压力。提高你的呼吸技术,僵硬感将很快消失。

Tip 6. A lack of Body Rotation Could be hurting your breathing(身体转动的不足将破坏你的呼吸)
良好的身体转动对你换气是一个巨大的帮助。那是因为你转体后,你换气时就无需过多转动你的头。如果你正挣扎着进行换气,也许到一边,不好的身体转动可能是你的问题。
关于开发良好的身体滚动全部故事,找出我们在身体转动上文章。

Tip 7. Learn to Breathe Bilaterally (学会双侧换气)
在这儿,我们相信学会双侧换气是一种投资,它将会在你余下的游泳生涯里回报你。那是因为它有助于开发一种对称的划水技术,而对称的划臂会让你在水中游成直线。
如果你仅作单侧换气,这很可能是你的身体向你非换气侧转动不足,那样你将不会游成直线。
我们已经一次又一次地看到这些问题的游泳者,他们只进行单侧换气。

 

关于 漂

游泳爱好者,常年混迹于各大游泳网站论坛中,学习了不少游泳知识和技巧,发文或者转文旨在分享游泳学习中的经验与方法,与大家共同进步。单项突破,循序渐进,你也可以游出世界冠军的风采。PS:本站视频可以直接长按下载到本地离线观看。